Thomas Pynchon’s Against the Day: A Deleuzian Reading of Pynchon’s Language

Thomas Pynchon

This study examines Thomas Pynchon’s mammoth novel Against the Day in terms of the minor practice of language as proposed by Deleuze and Guattari in their book Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, which opens up new possibilities for literary criticism. With his idiosyncratic, intense and inventive practice of language, Pynchon shatters pre-existing notions of appropriate […]

From Wedlock To Deadlock: Madame Bovary’s Path Toward Self-Destruction

Madame Bovary

This study explores the unexplored thicket of nineteenth-century ideology to reassess the reasons for Emma Bovary’s suicide. The historical investigation in this article shows that the doctrine of separate spheres exerted a great influence on the lives of middle-class women. Moreover, the practice of this doctrine led to a reinforcement of the rigid dichotomy of […]


William Blake

Blake has long been considered uncomfortable by environmental critics and many environmentalists have claimed that he cannot be considered an environmentally conscious poet. At the same time, there are other critics who seek to manipulate and ignore some of Blake`s negative portrayals of nature and to show that he can be included in contemporary critical […]

Manifestation (Tajalli) By Sadeq Hedayat

Sadeq Hedayat

As dusk began to weave its shadowy carpet across the sky, Hasmik pulled the brim of her hat down to cover her eyebrows and pulled the collar of her cloak closer, as if to ward off the encroaching cold. With swift, deliberate steps, she made her way home, her mind so ensnared by confused thoughts […]

Discourse on Jafar Sadiq b. Muhammed from Attar’s Hagiography of Muslim Saints

Imam Jafar Sadiq was born into a lineage of profound Islamic scholars, being the great-grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He received his early education from his father, Imam Muhammad Baqir, and was exposed to diverse schools of thought, laying the foundation for his extensive knowledge and wisdom. Imam Jafar Sadiq’s scholarly contributions encompass various […]

Female Liberation in John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman

John Fowles

Unveiling the Literary Legacy of John Fowles: A Journey into the Mind of a Master Storyteller   Introduction: John Fowles, a prominent English author, captivated readers worldwide with his innovative narratives and thought-provoking themes. Known for his distinct writing style, Fowles seamlessly merged genres, delving into the realms of psychological fiction, metafiction, and existentialism. In […]

Historical Metafiction: Elena Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels As A Postmodern Rethinking Of History

Elena Ferrante

About Elena Ferrante: Elena Ferrante is the pseudonymous pen name of an Italian author whose true identity remains a well-guarded secret. Despite her anonymity, Ferrante’s works have gained international acclaim and have captivated readers worldwide. Known for her raw and honest portrayal of the female experience, Ferrante’s narratives delve into the complexities of human emotions, […]

Elif Shafak: Silenced Voices in 10 Minutes And 38 Seconds

Elif Shafak

10 Minutes 38 Seconds in This Strange World is a 2019 novel by Turkish writer Elif Shafak and her eleventh overall. Elif Shafak writes in Turkish and English, and has published 19 works. She is best known for her novels, which include The Bastard of Istanbul, The Forty Rules of Love, Three Daughters of Eve and 10 Minutes 38 Seconds in This Strange World. Elif […]

Ian McEwan: The Underlying Tragedy of Joe Rose in Enduring Love

Enduring Love

Ian McEwan is an English novelist and screenwriter. In 2008, The Times featured him on its list of “The 50 greatest British writers since 1945” and The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 19 in its list of the “100 most powerful people in British culture.” In Enduring Love by Ian McEwan, the calm, organized life […]

Culture and Gender Representation in Iranian School Textbooks

Theo Van Leeuwen, one of the main developers of social semiotics and co-founder of Multimodality, discusses Social semiotics, Multimodality and Critical Discourse Analysis and other related issues. Abstract This study examines the representations of male and female social actors in selected Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks. It is grounded in Critical Discourse […]

Tayib Salih: Bride of Desire: The Season of Migration to the North

Tayib Salih  was a Sudanese novelist and short-story writer whose works explore the intersections of traditional and modern life in Africa. Tayib Salih is best known for Season of Migration to the North which is a counternarrative to Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. Salih’s writing draws important inspiration from his youth in a Sudanese village; […]

E. L. Doctorow: Representations of Carnivalesque in Welcome to Hard Times

Welcome to Hard Times

Edgar Lawrence Doctorow was an American novelist who  wrote twelve novels, three volumes of short fiction and a stage drama. They included the award-winning novels Ragtime, Billy Bathgate, The March, and Welcome to Hard Times. Doctorow was honoured with the National Humanities Medal (1998), the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction (2012), the […]

A Dance of the Forests: The Unsaid of Wole Soyinka’s Play

Wole Soyinka

Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist in the English language. He is best known for A Dance of the Forest and Death and The King’s Horseman. A Nobel Prize Winner, Soyinka founded an acting company and wrote his first important play, A Dance of the Forests for the independence celebrations in Nigeria. Wole […]

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: A Postcolonial Feminist Study of Half of a Yellow Sun

chimamanda adichie

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, (born September 15, 1977, Enugu, Nigeria), Nigerian author whose work drew extensively on the Biafran war in Nigeria during the late 1960s known for her highly successful novel Half of a Yellow Sun (2006). Half of a Yellow Sun is a novel by Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Published in 2006 by 4th Estate in London, […]

Elena Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels: A Feministic Study

Elena Ferrante

Elena Ferrante (Italian pronunciation: [ˌɛːlena ferˈrante]) is a pseudonymous Italian novelist. Ferrante’s books, originally published in Italian, have been translated into many languages. Ferrante’s four-book series of Neapolitan Novels are her most widely known works. Time magazine called Ferrante one of the 100 most influential people in 2016. Elena Ferrante is the name used by the author of many novels, including the four-volume work […]

Reading Caryl Churchill’s Top Girls Based On A Synthesis Of Heinz Kohut’s Theories On Narcissism And Fredrick Jameson’s Marxist Perspectives

Top Girls

Caryl Churchill, (born September 3, 1938, London, England), British playwright whose work frequently dealt with feminist issues, abuses of power, and sexual politics. Top Girls is one of her bestknown play. When Churchill was 10 years old, she emigrated with her family to Canada. She attended Lady Margaret Hall, a women’s college of the University of Oxford, […]

Harold Pinter’s The Homecoming: Domination, Servitude and Commodity Fetishism

Harold Pinter

Harold Pinter  was a British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor. A Nobel Prize winner, Pinter was one of the most influential modern British dramatists with a writing career that spanned more than 50 years. The Homecoming and the Birthday Party are among his most famous plays. Pinter’s best-known plays include The Birthday Party (1957), The Homecoming (1964) and Betrayal (1978), each of which he adapted for […]